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LACAN, THE EXHIBITION. WHEN ART MEETS PSYCHOANALYSIS

The ideas of Jacques Lacan are, alongside the work of Roland Barthes, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida and Gilles Deleuze, essential for understanding our contemporary world. While homages and exhibitions have already examined most of these intellectual figures, the thought of Lacan has not been dealt with in museums to date, even though he was strongly attached to works of art.


In a text devoted to the work of Marguerite Duras, Lacan declared that “in his materials, the artist always […] precedes him [the analyst] and so he does not have to play the psychologist where the artist has paved the way for him” (“Hommage fait à Marguerite Duras du Ravissement de Lol V Stein” (1965), Autres écrits, Paris, Seuil, 2001).

Curated by Marie-Laure Bernadac and Bernard Marcadé, the exhibition at the Centre Pompidou-Metz was the first dedicated to Jacques Lacan. Over 40 years after the psychoanalyst’s death, it seemed urgent to plan an exhibition highlighting the unique links between Jacques Lacan and art, by putting into perspective the works he himself referenced, the artists who paid tribute to him, as well as the modern and contemporary works that can provide an echo to the great conceptual orientations of his thought.

Lacan opened an innovative space that is at the heart of our modernity and of our contemporary experience. Today we are debating issues of sex, love, identity, gender, power, belief or disbelief, all questions for which the psychoanalyst provided precious reference points.

“Lacan, The Exhibition. When Art Meets Psychoanalysis”. Photo: © Centre Pompidou-Metz / Marc Domage

Visitors encounter his person and voice from the entrance, via his only television appearance, filmed by the young Benoît Jacquot in 1974. This part of the exhibition mentions his training with the man he considered as “his only teacher in psychiatry” (Écrits, Paris, Seuil, 1966), Gaëtan Gatian de Clérambault; his relations with the avant-garde (Salvador Dalí, André Masson, Georges Bataille, Pablo Picasso, Dora Maar) and with the intellectual figures he was in contact with (Alexandre Kojève, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Roman Jakobson, Henri Lévi-Strauss, Martin Heidegger, Roland Barthes, Michel Foucault). His love of calligraphy and Chinese thought is also mentioned.

Lacan had a close relationship with the art and artists of the 20th century and constantly delved into the art of all ages in his teaching. He discussed art in new and unusual ways, attracting, intriguing and provoking many contemporary artists. He saw art works not only as having the power to show us the world, but also as dazzling viewpoint-objects taking aim at viewers.

All this is far removed from a psychoanalytical interpretation of artists. The psychoanalyst is quite the opposite of a master: he or she is a student of art, docile to art’s original truths, and aiming to decipher the previously unsuspected knowledge it contains. That is why this exhibition is not only a homage to psychoanalysis: it also celebrates what remains behind, after all elucidation, the mystery of art. Lacan, at the end of his life, saw things no differently.

Martha Wilson, Mona/Marcel/Marge, 2014. Lenticular photograph, 74 x 53 x 4 cm. Edition of 10 and 3 artist’s proofs. Courtesy PPWO Gallery

INTERVIEW WITH CURATORS. Marie-Laure Bernadac and Bernard Marcadé

Why is it essential to mount an exhibition devoted to Jacques Lacan today?

BM: Jacques Lacan died in 1981. That’s nearly 40 years ago. He is someone who anticipated a certain number of current issues and organizing an exhibition around him was a way of paying tribute to someone who intuited a certain number of problems that are of central concern to us today. I’m thinking of the issue of women, for example. On this point, Lacan diverged from Freud, attaching great importance to the question of the woman, of whom he said, provocatively, that she does not exist, that is to say, she cannot be reduced to an essence and a norm. It is exciting to be able to show how this innovative approach to psychoanalysis is echoed in numerous contemporary works of art that explore the question of gender.

MLB: There is much debate today about issues related to gender, identity, faith, and religion. Lacan offers a form of psychoanalysis that is very open to all the changes taking place in society today. He doesn’t necessarily provide answers, but he paved the way on all these questions: those to do with gender and identity. I think it is important to restate this today, because psychoanalysis is often attacked.

BM: Lacan is one of the greatest French thinkers and, more widely, one of the greatest thinkers of psychoanalysis. He was a thinker on a par with Derrida, Deleuze, Barthes and Foucault. He is part of the intellectual heritage of the 20th century.

MLB: He is a thinker who had a very strong relationship to art, hence this exhibition in a museum. Our exhibition is not about psychoanalysis, but an exhibition about Lacan’s relationship with works of art.

Caravaggio, Narcissus, 1597-1599. Italy, Rome, Palazzo Barberini, Gallery of Ancient Art. Photo SCALA, Florence, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais / image Scala
Caravaggio, Narcissus, 1597-1599. Italy, Rome, Palazzo Barberini, Gallery of Ancient Art. Photo SCALA, Florence, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais / image Scala.

What was the starting point for the exhibition?

MLB: The exhibition was instigated by two psychoanalysts, Paz Corona and Gérard Wajcman. They wanted to devote an exhibition to Jacques Lacan in a big institution, but they didn’t know how to organize it or put it together, neither of them being curators nor art historians. So, they consulted us. I immediately thought of the Centre Pompidou-Metz. Following on the exhibition about Michel Leiris that I worked on, I thought that it could be interesting to repeat the interdisciplinary experience combining modern, contemporary and past art. Chiara Parisi was very enthusiastic about the idea of hosting such an experimental exhibition. We also spoke to several artists and curators of contemporary art exhibitions, and we quickly realized that there was considerable enthusiasm for the idea. It was a genuine subject.

BM: A genuine subject, but also a difficult one, because it really shakes things up, shedding light on contradictory issues. Lacan’s thought is multifarious and goes in many different directions.

In this mass of interlocking directions, we are inevitably confronted with some unsettling questions.

MLB: It is true that Lacan is a divisive figure, both venerated but also widely criticized. He remains a charismatic figure whose aura continues to impact contemporary artists. He was interested in the question of language, identity, pleasure, desire, etc. All of that opened the way for the creation of the exhibition.

BM: Lacan came up with caustic statements about the relationship between art and psychoanalysis: ‘We need to take a leaf out of art’; and ‘In his subject, the artist always precedes the psychoanalyst.’ These are the statements that permitted us to do this exhibition, which we wanted to be as ‘free’ as possible.

In what way did the artworks enrich Lacan’s thinking?

MLB: For Lacan, psychanalysis was informed by works of art. He was a collector through his affinities and encounters. His very varied collection, ranging from anthropology to modern art and Surrealism, was the result of friendships with André Masson, Claude Lévi-Strauss and François Cheng.

BM: Lacan continually and insistently refers to specific major works from art history, like Holbein’s The Ambassadors and Las Meninas by Velázquez. But he was also interested in contemporary works, like those of Duchamp, Dalí and Masson. Lacan accompanied a certain number of artistic adventures, above all during the Surrealist period (he wrote for the same periodicals as Leiris and Dalí). His thought is steeped in the visual and artistic culture of his time.

Is Courbet’s Origin of the World the exhibition’s emblematic work?

MLB: The Origin of the World is certainly emblematic, because Jacques Lacan bought it, probably on the advice of Sylvia Lacan, his wife. But the significant works in the exhibition also include very important paintings by Magritte, which concern us because works of art raise the question of the gaze.

BM: For me, Magritte’s eye, lent by the Museum of Modern Art of New York and titled The False Mirror, might be one of the emblematic works of the exhibition. It is both an eye that welook at and that looks at us. This exhibition functions on three levels. It displays works that Lacan looked at, as well as works by artists that are direct tributes to the psychoanalyst’s thought. And finally, this exhibition includes works that, in our view, look at Lacan, that is to say, resonate in a profound way with his thought.

MLB: We are also displaying works by Annette Messager, Louise Bourgeois, Marcel Broodthaers, Carol Rama, Leandro Erlich, Pierre Huyghe, Cerith Wyn Evans and Douglas Gordon. They are all artists whose works echo psychoanalysis.

BM: I would also mention Raymond Hains, who had a strong interest in Lacan. He scrupulously annotated several of the psychoanalyst’s books, which he religiously conserved in metal suitcases. He is perhaps the exhibition’s most Lacanian artist.

Leandro Erlich, El Consultorio del Psicoanalista, 2005. Two identical pieces, sofa, bookcase, desk, chairs, rug, mirror, black boxes and light, dimensions variable. Collection of the artist / With the generous support of Galleria Continua
Leandro Erlich, El Consultorio del Psicoanalista, 2005. Two identical pieces, sofa, bookcase, desk, chairs, rug, mirror, black boxes and light, dimensions variable. Collection of the artist / With the generous support of Galleria Continua

THE MIRROR STAGE

Jacques Lacan’s inaugural, fundamental theory of the mirror stage, formulated in 1936, brought to light the remarkable role of image for Man and the secret of his strange love for his own image. This experience, which is primordial for a child’s psychic development, gives rise to an awareness of him/ herself as a whole, through his/her reflection.

The mirror stage reveals the personal drama that everyone must go through to identify with themselves, to access the oneness of their body and be able to say “I.” This theory therefore exposes the question of identity, which is formed by alienation, like Caravaggio’s Narcissus or the famous scene in Martin Scorsese’s film Taxi Driver. Whether opaque and indistinct as for Marcel Broodthaers and Bertrand Lavier, split in two as for Felix Gonzalez-Torres, or a metaphor of the picture as for Michelangelo Pistoletto, the mirror is at the heart of analytic experience, as embodied by Leandro Erlich’s installation.

LALANGUE

In 1955-1956, Jacques Lacan gave his Psychoses seminar in which he explained that “the unconscious is structured like a language,” an explanation he pursued in La Troisième. In 1971, he clarified his viewpoint by inventing the neologism “lalangue,” formulated as a result of a slip of the tongue, to designate a function of language in touch with what he qualifies as Real.

Based around a large installation by Marcel Broodthaers linking Stéphane Mallarmé’s poetic “throw of the dice” to Lacan’s analytic thought, artists celebrate wordplay and witticisms, dear to Michel Leiris (François Morellet, Bruce Nauman, Jean Dupuy), literalism (René Magritte, Olivier Leroi), slips of the tongue, sound ejaculations (Ghérasim Luca), and warbling, if not bird talk with Raymond Hains’ “Nightingalesque” ski fence (Palissade Rossignolesque, “Rossignol” being the French for “nightingale” as well as a brand of ski-wear).

Louise Bourgeois, Fillette (Sweeter Version), 1968-1999. Pigmented urethane rubber, hanging piece, 59.7 x 26.7 x 19.7 cm. © The Easton Foundation / Adagp, Paris, 2023 / Photo: Christopher Burke
Constantin Brancusi, Princess X, 1915 – 1916. Plaster, 61,5 x 28 x 25 cm. Paris, Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne. Brancusi Succession – All rights reserved (Adagp) 2023 / Photo © Centre Pompidou, MNAM-CCI/Georges Meguerditchian/Dist. RMN-GP

THE NAME-OF-THE-FATHER

This notion was elaborated in the 1950s by Jacques Lacan as a signifier of the symbolic paternal function, viewed as a sham or fiction. Initially, the Name-of-the-Father referred to the Christian tradition, designating an all-powerful Father, the instance of Law and that which is forbidden. Lacan broke with this patriarchal order, thus reflecting the social changes of the time, differentiating between the Real father and the Imaginary father.

In French, the Name-of-the-Father (Nom du Père) can also be interpreted as the No-of-the-Father (Non du Père), against whom artists such as Louise Bourgeois, Niki de Saint Phalle and Camille Henrot were to rebel, having inherited their father’s name, and were to base their work on the murder or destruction of the Father.

As for Nina Childress, she evoked the relationship of the daughter of the Father with Film Freud. Before them, Hans Bellmer and Claude Cahun had already undermined the paternal figure. Lastly, at the end of his life, Lacan effected a semantic shift in meaning of the term “Nom-du-Père” to the phrase “Les non-dupes errent” (the non-dupes err), which Sophie Calle used in ironic fashion by veiling La mère veille (The Mother Keeping Vigil, a play on the word “merveille” meaning “wonder”or “marvel”).

OBJET a

Objet a, one of Jacques Lacan’s cardinal inventions, which, from the late 1950s qualified “the object-cause of desire” as absence, remains and fall, was embraced by modern and contemporary art in spectacular fashion. Marcel Duchamp’s list for his “transformer designed to use small, wasted energy” in 1912 would appear to foreshadow this notion.

In addition to the four emblematic objects—the Breast, Shit, the Voice and the Gaze—the Fall, the Void, and the Broken-up body were added by capillarity, as well as the Phallus in so far as it was the signifier of Absence for Lacan. Whether erect, anamorphosized, veiled or detumescent, phallic avatars of objet a are legion in the arts of Antiquity and the Renaissance era (from the Villa dei Misteri in Pompeii to Hans Holbein’s Ambassadors), but also, most particularly, in today’s art.

Within this galaxy, the Gaze as object occupies a central place, to the point of making us slip towards the Hole through which the onlooker can observe the body of the woman in Given (Étant donnés), Marcel Duchamp’s ultimate work revisited by Mathieu Mercier.

Gustave Courbet, The Origin of the World, 1866. Paris, Musée d'Orsay © RMN-Grand Palais (Musée d'Orsay) / Hervé Lewandowski
Gustave Courbet, The Origin of the World, 1866. Paris, Musée d’Orsay © RMN-Grand Palais (Musée d’Orsay) / Hervé Lewandowski

GAZE

Since Antiquity, science and philosophy have endlessly questioned what “seeing” is. Lacan studied all the theories of vision, from the conditions of vision put forward by Aristotle to the wave-like and corpuscular theories of light of the 20th century, via the geometric perspective of the Renaissance, the optics of Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton and René DescartesDioptrics. In the end it was Christ’s word in St. Matthew’s Gospel that clarified everything: “They have eyes that they might not see.”

Lacan then asked: “might not see what?” if indeed things are looking at them. In a radical and decisive inversion of this, Lacan stated that what fundamentally determines seeing subjects within the visible is the gaze, which is without. From Marcel Duchamp and René Magritte to Anish Kapoor, from Alberto Giacometti and Hans Bellmer to Lea Lublin and Mathieu Mercier, painters, draftsmen and sculptors brandish the gaze as an object not only in art but also of art itself. We see the works of art, but we are also looked at by them.

THE ORIGIN OF THE WORLD

The Origin of the World by Gustave Courbet was acquired by Jacques Lacan and his wife Sylvia in 1955. That same year, thepsychoanalyst commissioned André Masson, Sylvia’s brother-in-law, who was a friend of theirs and of Georges Bataille, to make a cover in the form of a thin panel of painted wood that slid open. The Origin of the World, long since legendary, has been the object of numerous interpretations by female artists who have either chosen to display the female genitals more openly, or to add famous feminized surnames or even a face to them in a more conceptual approach.

“Lacan, The Exhibition. When Art Meets Psychoanalysis”. Photo: © Centre Pompidou-Metz / Marc Domage

LAS MENINAS

In his thirteenth seminar, The Object of Psychoanalysis, in May 1966, Jacques Lacan meticulously analyzed the foremost allegory of painting, Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez. This picture thwarts all the codes of perspective, but, as a mise en abyme of the representational process, it can be seen as a screen that hides as much as it reveals.

Lacan detects a “secret object” in the “brilliant cladding” of the infante Doña Margarita Teresa, “the central character and Velazquez’ favorite model who he painted seven or eight times.” The slit in the Infante’s dress is both obvious and hidden, visible and invisible. There is no better definition of objet a, for Las Meninas appeals to the registers of fantasy and Freudianscopic drive. The slit, this “central object” referring to the Freudian theory of the splitting of the subject (Spaltung), is echoed visually, according to Lacan, in the lacerations of Lucio Fontana’s painting Concetti spaziali.

THE WOMAN

Lacan’s statement “Woman does not exist” means that it is not possible to give a universal definition of the woman. Women exist, unquestionably, but there is no category or article capable of qualifying them. According to Lacan, they are inherently plural, and their existence cannot be linked to any signifier: “She is called woman and defamed” (Encore, The Seminar, Book XX).

Lacan put forward this premise to deconstruct through the use of language, the normal vision that takes root in patriarchal structures, countering it with the multiplicity of the female construct. In My Collection of Proverbs (1974), produced at the same time as Lacan’s Encore seminar dedicated to female jouissance, Annette Messager embroiders derogatory, jokey aphorisms and colloquialisms about women. The female bodies that Tracey Emin tirelessly draws and paints are never set in a particular form because “not all” of a female can be described, shown or painted.

Annette Messager, Mi colección de proverbios, 1974. Tela bordada en rojo, burdeo, azul y verde, 35 × 28 cm. Foto: Rémi Villaggi © Adagp, París, 2023.
Ghada Amer, And the Beast, 2004. Courtesy of the artist and Marianne Boesky Gallery, New York and Aspen. © Ghada Amer / Adagp, Paris, 2023

MASQUERADES

In his eleventh seminar, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis, Lacan attributes authorship of the masquerade concept to the British psychoanalyst Joan Riviere, describing it as follows: “Woman creates an appearance that replaces ‘having’ in order to hide the absence.” One can view this mask that can be worn or removed as an act of resistance towards patriarchal domination—an exaggerated game of ultra-feminine codes and signs that form a challenge to the male gaze.

Dressing up and cross-dressing have featured in works of art since the Countess of Castiglione, via historic figures like Marcel Duchamp alias Rrose Sélavy, and Claude Cahun, who adorned both male and female masks. In the 1970s, numerous female artists used this means to denounce archetypes of femininity (Suzy Lake), going as far as parody when Hélène Delprat revived stagings by Claude Cahun and Pierre Molinier. As for Cindy Sherman, she repeated this art of “I is another” with avatars, to do away with the masculine-feminine duality in favor of the free space of the multiple appropriated by women.

ANATOMY IS NOT DESTINY

Numerous modern and contemporary artistic practices, from those of Pierre Molinier to today’s queer stances, via the self-portraits of Urs Lüthi, question the discrepancy between biological sex and claimed identity. Through the work of Michel Journiac, Nan Goldin and Edi Dubien, who defended practices linked to cross-dressing and trans identity, an arrangement emerged that undermined the watchword by which, in keeping with Sigmund Freud’s phrase, anatomy is destiny.

Jacques Lacan distanced himself from this prescriptive position. For him, gender did not necessarily correspond to sex and desire had to free itself from the binary registration system. For Lacan, the gender-related being derives authorization from him/herself only; he/she can therefore choose his/her sexual identity, in addition to that assigned to him/her by his/her civil status and anatomy.

Cindy Sherman, Untitled #501, 1977-2011. Gelatine-silver print, 22.2 × 17.5 cm. Edition 4/20. Paris, Fondation Louis Vuitton. Cindy Sherman / Courtesy the artist and Hauser & Wirth

THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS A SEXUAL RELATIONSHIP

“There is no such thing as a sexual relationship” is one of Jacques Lacan’s most famous and most commented on formulas. He developed this notion considerably, opposing the “act” to the “relationship.” While sexual acts do exist, relationships between the sexes are not mathematically equal.

Sexual relationships for speaking beings are always more or less a failure, hence love that compensates for the absence of a sexual relationship, according to Lacan. With this in mind, the copy of Marcel Duchamp’s Large Glass (Grand Verre) undertaken by Pascal Goblot uses a narrative where the jouissance of the bride in the upper register of the artworkoccurs without there being any physical contact with the bachelors in the lower register. This complex dual relationship is also found in an explicit manner in Maria Martins’ sculpture The Impossible III.

JOUISSANCE

For Jacques Lacan, it’s impossible to say everything there is to say about jouissance because it belongs to a different order than the signifier. Words are insufficient for expressing that which affects the body; they miss their target and are therefore repetitive. Lacanian psychoanalysis defines jouissance as being beyond pleasure and desire.

According to Lacan, there are two types of jouissance: one that is phallic (linked to the sexual act, to the forbidden, oedipal); the other feminine (beyond the phallus, experienced in the body, in the real and the imaginary). Both sexes have access to it. Blow Job by Andy Warhol, as well as Arched Figure by Louise Bourgeois highlight the fact that for man, jouissance can quite happily do away with words and that jouissance and love are not necessarily linked. In his seminar Encore, Lacan comments on Bernini’s Ecstasy of Saint Theresa and discusses mystical ecstasies that both intrigue and are found throughout the contemporary art scene.

Maurizio Cattelan, Untitled, 2007. Resin, clothing, human hair, packing material, wood, screws and wooden anchor, 235 × 137 × 47 cm. Milan, private collection. Courtesy of Maurizio Cattelan’s Archives

TOPOLOGIES

From the 1950s, Jacques Lacan became interested in topological objects that enabled him to physically appreciate the subject divided by the object that causes it. These included the Möbius band with its dual structure, the right way round and the wrong way round, that symbolizes the division of the unconscious and conscious, and therefore that of the subject from this divide.

From the early 1970s, influenced by the work of the mathematician Pierre Soury, Lacan was fascinated by the Borromean knot, which he said he had been given “as a ring for the finger” (RSI [Real, Symbolic and Imaginary], Le Séminaire, Book XXII, unpublished).

He used it to knot and unknot the three registers, which he identified as the Real, the Symbolic and the Imaginary (RSI). Numerous contemporary artists, including Raymond Hains, Jean-Michel Othoniel, Éric Duyckaerts, Pierre Huyghe, Jean-Luc Moulène and Gary Hill, have been influenced by Lacan’s topological concerns, not forgetting the psychologist’s interest in the knots and plaits created by François Rouan, an artist he met at the Villa Medici, for whom he wrote a text.

Maria Martins, The Impossible III, 1946. Bronze, 80 × 82,5 × 53,3 cm. The Museum of Modern Art, NY. © Digital image, The Museum of Modern Art, New York/Scala, Florence / © Maria Martin
Maria Martins, The Impossible III, 1946. Bronze, 80 × 82,5 × 53,3 cm. The Museum of Modern Art, NY. © Digital image, The Museum of Modern Art, New York/Scala, Florence / © Maria Martin

LACAN, THE EXHIBITION. WHEN ART MEETS PSYCHOANALYSIS

Centre Pompidou-Metz, 1 Parv. des Droits de l’Homme, Metz, France

From December 31st, 2023 to May 27th, 2024

Curators: Marie-Laure Bernadac and Bernard Marcadé, art historians, assisted by Gérard Wajcman and Paz Corona, psychoanalysts

List of Artists

Saâdane Afif, Jean-Michel Alberola, Francis Alÿs, Ghada Amer, Carl Andre, Art & Language, Hans Bellmer, Marianne Berenhaut, Julien Bismuth, Pierre Bismuth, Olivier Blanckart, Louise Bourgeois, Constantin Brancusi, Brassaï, Marcel Broodthaers, Claude Cahun, Sophie Calle, Mircea Cantor, Caravage, Jean-Baptiste Carhaix, Maurizio Cattelan, Jean-François Chabaud, Nina Childress, Gustave Courbet, Salvador Dalí, Gaëtan Gatian de Clérambault, Deborah De Robertis, Brice Dellsperger, Hélène Delprat, Wim Delvoye, Edi Dubien, Marcel Duchamp, Jean Dupuy, Éric Duyckaerts, Latifa Echakhch, Tracey Emin, Sammy Engramer, Leandro Erlich, Cerith Wyn Evans, Lucio Fontana, Dora García, Alberto Giacometti, Robert Gober, Pascal Goblot, Jean-Luc Godard, Nan Goldin, Felix Gonzáles-Torres, Douglas Gordon, Raymond Hains, Camille Henrot, Gary Hill, Pierre Huyghe, Benoît Jacquot, Michel Journiac, Anish Kapoor, Mike Kelley, Anselm Kiefer, Sharon Kivland, Joseph Kosuth, Arnaud Labelle-Rojoux, Suzanne Lafont, Suzy Lake, Laura Lamiel, Bertrand Lavier, Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, Olivier Leroi, Jean-Jacques Lequeu, Pascal Lièvre, Jacques Lizène, Lea Lublin, Ghérasim Luca, Sarah Lucas, Urs Lüthi, René Magritte, Benoît Maire, Victor Man, Man Ray, Piero Manzoni, Maria Martins, André Masson, Nelly Maurel, Paul McCarthy, Clémentine Melois, Ana Mendieta, Mathieu Mercier, Annette Messager, Miss.Tic, Pierre Molinier, François Morellet, Jean-Luc Moulène, Bruce Nauman, ORLAN, Jean-Michel Othoniel, Juan Perez Agirregoikoa, Francis Picabia, Pablo Picasso, Domenico Piola, Michelangelo Pistoletto, Michel Powell, Jean-Charles de Quillacq, Carol Rama, Pablo Reinoso, Madeleine Roger-Lacan, François Rouan, Éléonore Saintaignan, Niki de Saint-Phalle, Carolee Schneemann, Martin Scorsese, Alain Séchas, Cindy Sherman, Mira Shor, Walter Swennen, Alina Szapocznikow, Agnès Thurnauer, Betty Tompkins, Rosemarie Trockel, Clovis Trouille, Tatiana Trouvé, Gavin Turk, Ida Tursic & Wilfried Mille, Valie Export, Diego Vélasquez, Jean-Luc Verna, Dominique-Vivan Denon, Andy Warhol, Martha Wilson, Peter Whitehead, Gil Joseph Wolman, Wou-Ki Zao, Francisco de Zurbarán.

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